November 27, 1095 - Urban's call to crusade - the full text

On November 27, 1095, Pope Urban II delivered his speech at Clermont Ferrand, aimed at arrousing the people to start an armed pilgrimage to deliver the Holy Land from the hands of the "pagans", a pilgirmage that later became known as the First Crusade. Of this speech several quite different versions have been delivered to our time by primary sources. Below are the version of Fulcher of Chartres and the one of Robert the Monk. 

The Templar trials - more than one

It is often thought that the Templar trial in France, which commenced after the arrest of many Templars on October 13, 1307, was a single trial, carried out by either King Philip the Fair of France or the Pope. The latter being the one who had the sole jurisdiction on the Order of the Temple and its member. In reality, their were several investigations which succeeded each other in time, one secular and several ecclesiastical.

Templar activities in the city of Jerusalem

"The life of the Templars in Jerusalem is known thanks to the rule of the order and a panel of chronicles depicting the actions of the brothers in the 12th century. According to Michael the Syrian (1126-1199), the brothers supplied the population of Jerusalem with grain and provisions in 1120. (...) The intervention of the Templars proves that the order did not wait until the 13th century to take care of the needy. (...) 

France, fall 1307: Templar arrests, interrogations, confessions and royal-papal power struggle

"On October 12, 1307 Jacques de Molay went to Paris specifically to attend the funeral of Catherine, wife of Charles de Valois, brother of the king. He resides, of course, within the Temple enclosure. It's a coincidence that he's here. Does this mean that he knows nothing of what is going on and that he has unconsciously thrown himself into the den of the wolf? 

The true motifs behind the Templar arrests, October 13, 1307

As argued earlier, financial affairs, often suggested as the major trigger for the arrests, can only be a marginal reason for conflict between the Templars and the King of France. Alternatively, rumors against te Order of the Temple were. Rumors that led to the request of Jacques de Molay, Grand Master of the Temple, to Pope Clement V to open an investigation into the charges weighing on the order. In a letter to the King of France dated August 24, 1307 the Pope granted this request.

The run-up to the Templars' arrest, October 13, 1307

"On October 13, 1307, in the early morning, throughout the kingdom of France, the Templars were arrested and transferred to royal prisons. (...) During most of the reign of Philip the Fair, practically until the year 1305, relations between the Order of the Temple and the royalty, without being warm, were not conflictual. What had happened? 

Medieval fairs - birth ground of multinational enterprise

The Medieval fairs of Northern France, which were already well-organized at the start of the 12th century, were one of the earliest manifestations of a linked European economy, a characteristic of the High Middle Ages. 

Commercial activities by the medieval Military Orders

Everywhere, the commanderies also developed special relationships with the worlds of trade and crafts. Some examples.

Services by the military Orders to Western monarchial powers

The issue of military orders in the service of Western monarchies is a vast, important and still little studied theme. Kirstjan Toomaspoeg elaborates on few main issues. In this blog we focus on the services the Military Orders provided to the Western princess.