The Latin Liturgy of Jerusalem: a mixture of old and new, Occidental and Oriental

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The 12th century liturgy of Jerusalem was immensely important in the newly created socio-cultural and sacral landscape. Unique rites were established and formed part of a large project aimed at transforming the post-Byzantine Muslim city of Jerusalem into the Latin capital of their Kingdom and a spiritual centre of the Christian world. How was this accomplished?

The Templar compound on Temple Mount Jerusalem

 "Shortly after the conquest of Jerusalem in 1099, the Al-Aqsa mosque became the residence of the Frankish kings of Jerusalem. But the kings were not able to maintain the building in the condition in which they had found it." Perhaps that is what inspired king Baldwin II to lend the site to the young Templar Order. A reconstruction.

Jerusalem - Templar purpose and alibi in Bernard's "De laude novae militiae"

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De laude novae militiae, the famous eulogy written by Bernard of Clairvaux during the stay of Hugues de Payns in Europe in 1127 or 1128, contains several thoughts about the functions of the new Templar chivalry and the battles that the Templars are waging in the East. What details about the headquarters of the order exist and what the conception of Jerusalem prevailed in the clerical consciousness of the first half of the 12th century? (...)

Historiography of the Knights Templar - fact and fiction

 "The historiography of the Knights Templar is long, complex, and generously laced with fiction and legend. It overlaps with the historiographies of The Masonic Temple, the myths of the Grail, and the legends surrounding somewhat more concrete relics, such as the Shroud of Turin, and the splinter of the True Cross, which was captured by (and disappeared under) Saladin. How to distinguish between fact and fiction?

Natural setbacks for crusaders: plagues, droughts and earthquakes

During their campaigns, the crusaders faced not only Muslim opponents but also natural misfortunes such as plagues, droughts and earthquakes.

Administration in the early Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem

By the end of 1110, the administrative shape of the crusader states in Syria and Palestine can be discerned. How were secular and religous rule established?

The Templar headquarters at Jerusalem in Crusader times

"In 1118 or 1119 king Baldwin II gave the group of proto-Templars a temporary home in his residence in the al-Aqsa mosque on the Temple platform, believed by the Latins to have been the Temple of Solomon. The canons of the Temple of the Lord (the Dome of the Rock) gave them a square near the al-Aqsa to celebrate their offices." What was this location like?

Cistercians in the medieval Holy Land - a slow and limited start

In the West the development of the Cistercian organisation preceeded that of, and often coincided with, the Knights Templar. What was the case in the Holy Land?